India is one of the world's fastest-growing economies, and with its rising population and increasing demand for energy, the country faces a significant challenge in meeting its energy needs in a sustainable and secure manner. The energy sector in India has traditionally relied heavily on fossil fuels, but the country has recognized the need to transition to more sustainable energy sources. In recent years, the concept of green hydrogen has gained significant attention as a potential solution for India's energy challenges.

Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi announced the National Hydrogen Mission on the 75th Independence Day with an ambition of making India self-reliant in the production of green hydrogen and exporting it to other nations. In January 2022, the National Green Hydrogen Mission was approved by the Union Cabinet with an initial outlay of INR 19,744 crore. Currently, India has an outflow of USD 160 billion on account of energy imports and this situation can only worsen if corrective action is not taken now. The Green Hydrogen Mission can help to alleviate India’s energy quandary and make it the world champion for green hydrogen.

Green hydrogen is produced through the electrolysis of water using renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power. This process splits water into hydrogen and oxygen, with the hydrogen being stored for use as a fuel. Unlike traditional hydrogen, which is produced from fossil fuels and results in significant greenhouse gas emissions, green hydrogen is a clean and renewable energy source. It has the potential to play a critical role in India's energy transition and can contribute to the country's energy security and sustainability.

Energy Security

Energy security refers to the availability of adequate energy supplies to meet the needs of a country's economy. India is heavily reliant on imported oil and gas, which makes the country vulnerable to price fluctuations and supply disruptions. The use of green hydrogen as an energy source has the potential to reduce India's dependence on imported fossil fuels and increase its energy security.

The production of green hydrogen is decentralized, meaning that it can be produced locally using renewable energy sources. This not only reduces the need for energy imports, but also improves energy access in remote and rural areas. Furthermore, the storage and transport of hydrogen are well established, and the fuel can be stored for long periods, making it an ideal energy source for backup power and energy storage.


Sustainability is a critical issue for India, as the country has to balance its growing energy needs with its commitment to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating the impacts of climate change. Green hydrogen has the potential to play a significant role in achieving this balance.

The production of green hydrogen results in no greenhouse gas emissions, making it a clean and sustainable energy source. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen in various applications, such as transportation and power generation, can help reduce emissions from the energy sector. The production of green hydrogen also provides an opportunity for the integration of renewable energy into the energy grid, which can help increase the share of renewable energy in the energy mix.

Economic Benefits

The development of the green hydrogen sector in India has the potential to create new economic opportunities and jobs. The production and distribution of green hydrogen can create new business opportunities and support the growth of new industries. Furthermore, the deployment of green hydrogen technologies can stimulate investment in the renewable energy sector, which can contribute to the growth of the Indian economy.

Challenges and Opportunities

The transition to green hydrogen as an energy source in India will face several challenges, including the high cost of production, the lack of infrastructure for hydrogen storage and transport, and the limited availability of renewable energy sources. However, these challenges can also be viewed as opportunities for growth and development in the green hydrogen sector.

The cost of green hydrogen production has been reducing steadily in recent years, and continued investment in research and development can further reduce costs and increase efficiency. The development of new technologies and the growth of the green hydrogen sector can also drive investment in infrastructure for hydrogen storage and transport, making the deployment of green hydrogen technologies more practical and cost-effective.

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In conclusion, green hydrogen has the potential to play a critical role in India's energy transition, contributing to the country's energy security and sustainability. The production and use of green hydrogen can reduce the country's dependence on imported fossil fuels. Green hydrogen can pave the way for a self-reliant India making it a world power in the true sense of the term. This has the potential to resolve India’s biggest bottleneck that makes it susceptible to oil price volatility. With the new focus on Green Hydrogen, India can look forward to exciting times ahead.