Nowadays power is a must for modern-day living. For each and every need of humans, you need power to run the show. A stable power is a must for manufacturing, technological usage, infrastructure, and many more to say.

Technology has evolved nowadays which needs power for its usage.  Whether it is for household appliances i.e., TV, Fridge, LED lighting, etc., mobiles, Internet, or CCTVs. Traffic signal systems. Office equipment as such computers/printers/network switches. Lots of automation in industry need clean power to run all modern day machinery. Even for an EV concept you need power for charging. Power for mobile charging is a must in nowadays.

The main source of power is supply from the government sector, generated through conventional (Hydro, Thermal, Nuclear) and some from the private sector as renewable sources (Solar, wind, biogas, etc.). 75% of the power is generated through Coal a thermal plant.

Generator sets are also used as a main power source in many industries and as a stand-by option in general. If they are not with AVR, they affect the power to the load. Frequency and voltage should be tuned as regular maintenance.

Power reaches the user through various means of distribution channels. This causes degradation of quality in the supply chain. There are many reasons for the same. Improper distribution leads to voltage fluctuations, which causes damage to the load. Improper selection of electrical switchgear, wires, cables, and ducting causes power to fluctuate and malfunctioning of equipments.

The electrical industry at the user end is mostly managed by semi or unskilled persons. Improper knowledge of load calculation, distribution losses, switchgear selection, and lack of knowledge of wiring of phase, neutral, and earth causes many issues in a period of time. Misunderstanding neutral and earthing is a major concern.  

Understanding the difference between voltage fluctuation, spikes, surges-sags is very important when one is dealing with todays sophisticated equipments in industry for Control Panels, Drive applications, PLCs, robotic applications, and or high-end automation. Nowadays hospitals have very sensitive equipments, which needs clean power. Audio–video industry equipments are sensitive to voltage variations, noise generated due to power effects quality of transmission.

Ultimately important is to get clean and stable power to any equipment.

What does Stable and Clean Power mean?

Any equipment, whether single-phase or three-phase, works on a specific range of voltage, which comes from LT or HT power as per the need. Apart from distribution, Phase–neutral sequence and Earthing is very important in any three pin single-phase application. Earthing is crucial in three phase star and delta connection.

It is very important to make power stable and free from harmonics, and magnetic field effect. Many factors are important, such as the distribution transformer capacity, which should be of rated capacity as per the load requirement considering the power factor effect. Than the distribution panel and the switchgears in between. Proper distribution of load should be done as per the need of single phase and or three phase. Also care should be taken for specific load application, which may affect the other load in the distribution power line.

Load generating harmonics should be taken care of. Proper isolation is needed and grounding is a must to suppress the leakage current.

Quality and capacity of all the material used should be taken care of. Wires, whether copper or aluminum should be of proper rating. Underrated wires should be avoided. In between switches, sockets, MCBs, breakers, changeover switches, etc. should be rated. Care should be taken that there should be no loose connections on any junction point. Loose connections lead to fluctuations and damage the load. 

For maintaining voltage stability, many voltage controlling devices are available. Should be used as per the application, as many factors are affecting the stability of power, which are beyond control. Where maintaining proper earthing is difficult one can use an isolating devices. In order to remove harmonics, generated by the equipment itself, harmonic filters, chokes can be used.

Quality checks should be done at periodic interval of time to reduce downtime in case of any power related failure.

In all, power should be taken care of in all aspects of life. Must check from main source to distribution to load. Proper care should be taken by using suitable cables, sockets, MCBs, etc. Periodic maintenance is a must.